Occasionally that intervention is as simple as a myringotomy tube or ear tube placement in the office. However, occasionally this may require surgery and the possible surgeries may include a tympanoplasty, mastoidectomy, ossicular reconstruction or tympanomastoidectomy. A tympanoplasty is repair of the injured tympanic membrane by grafting fat to the areas of perforation or retraction. A mastoidectomy includes drilling and removing areas of diseased bone in the mastoid air cells which are immediately behind the ear canal in the bony area behind the ear. Typically, all of this surgical work is done through the ear canal or a small incision behind the ear. Occasionally, this requires reconstruction of the ear bones, and this is called ossicular reconstruction. This part of the surgery is sometimes done in a staged fashion at a later date with a second surgery. Occasionally, a myringotomy or ear tube will be placed at the time of surgery. There are some risks of surgery including bleeding, infection, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, continued perforation, continued otorrhea and rarely risks of facial paralysis, loss of taste and leakage of brain fluid. Your surgeon will be able to discuss your particular risks of surgery based upon your anatomy. Despite successful surgery, you may continue to have hearing loss and require hearing assistance such as a hearing aid. Long-term follow up is often required due to the sensitive nature of the ears. Occasionally numbness and pain will persist after surgery for several months. Most commonly, surgery is briefly discomforting and leads to a significant improvement of hearing as well as a dry ear. Please consult with your surgeon if you have any concerns or questions.